Kurulus Osman Ghazi I The Founder Of The Ottoman Empire
Introduction of Kurulus Osman Ghazi
Osman I, also known as Osman Gazi, was the founder and first sultan of the Ottoman Beylik, which would grow to become the Ottoman Empire (about 1258–approximately 1323 CE). In the Anatolian region of Bithynia, he was the ruler of one of numerous small Turkic principalities. Through a string of victories over the Byzantine Empire, he would lay the groundwork for his ancestors to establish an empire that would span three continents, last for centuries, and have an impact on the Middle East, the Balkans, and the rest of the world.
At the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan overcame the Byzantine Empire. For the Byzantines in Anatolia, the defeat represented a significant strategic setback that paved the way for eventual invasion and colonisation. The Oghuz Turkic tribes who made up the Seljuk confederacy were a nomadic group with roots in the Central Asian steppes who had adopted Islam. In the years after Manzikert, the Seljuks enjoyed considerable success in Anatolia and the Middle East; however, due to internal conflicts, battles with crusaders, and the rise of the Mongol Ilkhanate, the Seljuks in Anatolia changed their name to the Sultanate of Rum in 1081 CE, and then split into a number of principalities known as Beyliks. And Osman’s dominion was one of the several Beyliks.
Ascent to Power and Life:
There is little known about Osman’s early years. The majority of the chronicles of his life were written after his death at the request of Ottoman sultans centuries later, with the exception of contemporaneous Byzantine descriptions of his fights with their armies.
Osman was born in the city of Sögüt in the Bithynian area of northwest Anatolia about the year 1258 CE. Ertgurul, a chieftain from the Kay tribe who served as the Seljuks’ commander, was his father. The Seljuk Sultan gave him pasture estates in Bithynia in appreciation for his tribe’s outstanding service.
Young Osman wed Malhun, a renowned local Sufi cleric and his late father’s close confidant who was Sheikh Edebali. When Edebali heard Osman describe what he thought was a dream of prophecy, he decided to change his mind about giving his daughter’s hand in marriage to Osman. In this fabled dream, he saw the moon rise, dip into Edebali’s bosom, and sprout a tree that provided shade and streams of water for everyone. Edebali said that this foretold the thriving future dominion of Osman. Caroline Finkel, an expert in Ottoman studies, emphasises:
First communicated in this form in the later fifteenth century, a century and a half after Osman’s death in about 1323 CE, this dream became one of the most resilient founding myths of the empire, conjuring up a sense of temporal and divine authority and justifying the visible success of Osman and his descendants at the expense of their competitors for territory and power in the Balkans, Anatolia, and beyond. (32)
Conquests as the Ottoman Beylik’s ruler:
Around the year 1280 CE, after his father Ertugrul passed away, Osman assumed leadership of the tribe and prepared his troops for battle against the Byzantines. The establishment of three Uç Bey was his first order of business (frontier commanders). The Uç Bey were in charge of organising light cavalry raiders to battle the opposing forces before the regular army fought them, and each was in control of a border district. These irregular forces, known as Akinci later in Ottoman military history, were not paid by the state but rather were compensated by anything they could loot in enemy territory.
Three fronts were established by Osman’s Uç Bey. One was facing Nicaea, one Nicomedia, and the final one was facing the Black Sea. Osman’s soldiers started their conquests by seizing small communities in the countryside, strengthening their foothold in Bithynia and relying on the cavalry-centric military strategies of his Central Asian forefathers. Eskişehir and Yenişehir were two of these villages, with the latter serving as the first official capital.
At this point, Osman directed his attention northward towards Nicaea, one of the region’s most valuable targets. Nicaea, now known as Znik, was a significant Byzantine administrative hub and one of the few cities that had escaped the Fourth Crusade, which was led by Pope Innocent III in 1198 CE. Nicaea was defended with a city wall and was guarded by a sizable garrison. In 1299 CE, a century later, Osman’s armies besieged the city. But Nicaea would prove to be too formidable a target, and two years later the siege came to an end in defeat.
Osman’s attempt to conquer Nicaea finally failed, although about 1302 CE, the Byzantine ruler Andronicus II Palaeologus was intrigued by his achievements. Palaeologus offered their khan a political union with a Byzantium princess in an effort to persuade the Ilkhanids to intervene against Osman. The khan passed away before he could fulfil his commitment, so Palaeologus substituted Catalan mercenaries. They would eventually turn against the emperor and go to the Kingdom of Serbia for assistance.
Prusa’s Siege and Death:
After Osman and his troops beat the Byzantines at the Battle of Bapheus close to the Sea of Marmara in 1302 CE, the Byzantine control in Bithynia further weakened. Osman was able to strengthen his grasp on the countryside as a result of the results of the conflict, putting numerous important Byzantine cities within striking distance. Osman would reunite in Yenişehir in the years that followed and keep incorporating small communities into his fledgling principality. He finally surrounded and besieged the Bithynian capital of Prusa (modern-day Bursa) in 1308 CE. Thanks to a regular supply of supplies and reinforcements arriving via their naval connection to Constantinople, the defenders held out bravely. Around a decade of stalemate continued until Osman’s armies finally conquered the last port supplying Prusa in 1321 CE. Yet Osman would not live to see the siege end. His son Orhan would be the one to conquer the city after he passed away in 1323 CE. Orhan took over as Bey after his father and continued to grow the realm he inherited. Arriving at the gates of Constantinople before continuing on to nearly completely capture the area of Bithynia.
Domestic Issues and the Legacy:
Osman’s leadership was not attributed with the creation of any elaborate architecture or art since his people were nomadic and he placed great attention on securing his realm. The Haczbek Mosque, the earliest structure claimed to the Ottomans, wasn’t constructed in Znik until 1333 CE, under the tenure of Osman’s son and successor Orhan I. In contrast to his father’s rule, Orhan would also see to it that his people gradually shifted from a nomadic lifestyle to a more established one in the city.
The Seljuk model was substantially adopted by Osman’s government, including its emphasis on tribal ties, attire, and even an insignia that was allegedly given to him by a Seljuk Sultan. He employed Seljuk tactics to great effect, and may have owed his victory and combat prowess over the Byzantines to them.
The Sunni branch of Islam was practised by the Seljuks, Osman, and his subjects. On the other hand, a fresh school of Islamic thought known as Sufism began to develop in the 12th century CE. Sufis also hosted retreats in their lodges and participated in religious enlightenment exercises like dhikr, much like the monks of Europe who dedicated themselves to worship and spiritual growth in monasteries. They also had a penchant for literature and poetry, and they produced a number of well-known works that were printed in the Ottoman Empire. Beginning with Sheikh Edebali’s friendship with Osman in the 13th century CE, Sufis and Sufism played a significant role in the court of the Ottoman Sultans, influencing Ottoman politics for decades to come.
Ertugrul Ghazi Father Of Osman
Osman was buried with his father, Ertugrul, at his hometown of Söüt after passing away in 1323 CE. Until Orhan moved them to Bursa, which he called the new Ottoman capital when it was captured in 1337 CE, he remained buried there. Long after Osman’s passing, his legacy endured. The foundations of his accomplishments would be built upon by his successors. Converting what was once a meek region of pasture fields and small towns populated by nomads into a powerful empire. Osman’s legacy would carry on as the name of his kingdom, despite the fact that he himself was not known for any notable achievements or heroic tales like those of his successors.